Huwebes, Disyembre 29, 2011

Wooden Generator

Wooden Generator

 
Making an electric generator is a good way of learning the principles of generators. It also is an exciting science project. 
As a display project, you just need to make it and demonstrate it's structure. As an experimental project, you need to come up with questions about the factors that may affect the rate of production of electricity. 

Question:
If you want to do this as an experimental project, following are some suggested questions:
  1. How does the speed of turning affect the production of electricity?
  2. How does the diameter of wire coil affect the amount of electricity?
  3. How does the number of loops of wire in the coil affect the amount of electricity?
  4. How does the diameter of coil wire affect the electric current?
  5. How do the material used in the construction of an electric generator affect the production of electricity?
Hypothesis: 
Depending on the question that you select, you may predict an answer. That is called your hypothesis.
Dependent and Independent Variables
The factor that you are testing is your independent variable. For example the speed of turning and diameter of wire are samples of independent variables. The rate of production of electricity is the dependent variable.
Material:
Following are the material that you need in order to construct a wooden electric generator.
  1. Wood dowel 3/8" diameter
  2. Wood Dowel 1" diameter.
  3. Rod magnet 3" long
  4. Insulated copper wire 27 AWG, 200 feet
  5. 1.2 Volt Screw Base light Bulb
  6. Base for the light bulb
  7. Small sand paper
  8. Wood Glue
  9. 1/2 Square foot Balsa wood (1/8" diameter)
Preparation:
If you are buying a kit, all the wooden parts are included and they are already cut to the size. So you just need to connect them. If you don't have a kit, prepare the wooden parts as follows:
  1. Cut two square pieces from the balsa wood (3.5" x 3.5").
  2. Make a 3/8" hole in the center of each square.
  3. Cut four 1" x 3 7/16.
  4. Cut a 3/4" piece from the 1" wood dowel. Make a 3/8" hole in the center of it. Insert a 6" long 3/8" wood dowel in the hole, apply some glue. center it and wait for it to dry. 
  5. Make another hole with the diameter of your rod magnet in the center of the larger wood dowel piece for the magnet to go through.
Wood dowels after completing the step 4
Wood dowels after completing the step 5
Adult supervision and professional help is required for all cuttings and hole makings.
Procedure:
  1. Insert the magnet in the hole of the wood dowel. Center it and use some glue to secure it.
  2. Use one large square balsa wood and four smaller rectangular balsa woods to make a box.
  3. Insert your wood dowel into the hole in the center of the box. At this time the magnet is inside the box.
  4. Place the other large square to complete the box. Apply some glue to the edges and wait for the glue to dry. By now, you have a box and inside the box you have a magnet that can spin when you spin the wood dowel.
  5. Wrap 200 turns of copper wire around the box and use masking tape to secure it. 
  6. Remove the insulation from the ends of the wire and connect it to the screws of the bulb holder or base. 
  7. Insert the light bulb
  8. Spin the wood dowel fast to get the light.

Saltwater Battery


Abstract
We make this investigatory project to be able to produce an alternative source of electricity out of saltwater. The concept is easy. The same way that you burn wood and make heat energy, you should be able to burn metals and get electricity ( or electrical energy ). The difference is that you are not really burning anything; instead you are producing a condition for oxidation which by itself is the same as slow burning. If on with cup of saltwater and some metals we were able to light up a small bulb. It took us a look time to make first working battery using the saltwater; however, we don't have to waste that much time. We have combined the results of all our experiments and made a recipe for success. We conclude that we were able to create an alternative source of electricity out of saltwater.


A. Purpose

To be able to create an alternative source of electricity out of saltwater.

B. Procedure

Prepare the materials needed. Then, prepare the electrical materials, connect them correctly. Connect the other another wirings that are connected to the saltwater. After that, if the connections are securely and correctly connected finally, you can screw the light bulb on the miniature base.

C. Result

It took us a long time to make first working battery using saltwater; however, you don't have to waste that much time. We have combined the results of all our experiments and made a recipe for success.

D. Conclusion

We therefore conclude that we were able to create an alternative source of electricity out of saltwater.


Acknowledgment

First of all, we would like to thank Our Almighty Father for giving us the knowledge that we needed when we undergone this project . Next to our Physics teacher, Mrs. Arlinda Domingo for guiding us on how to do this project. Also, to Mrs. Annabelle Sarenas for allowing us to use the computer for our research related to this project. To Mrs. Myrna Maligaya, for checking our grammar. Especially to our supportive and loving parents for providing the financial expenses that we need when we make researches related to the project.

Make Electricity from fruits

Introduction: 
This project is one of the most famous electricity projects that can be performed successfully by most students in the age of 10 to 16. It helps students to learn about producing electrical energy using chemical energy. Since the same method is used to get energy from many fruits and chemicals, this project has many names. Following are some of the other names or titles for this project:
  1. Fruit power or fruit battery
  2. Convert Chemical energy to electrical energy
  3. Potato battery or Lemon battery

Procedure:
Making electricity from chemicals is based on the same scientific principles on which all modern batteries work. You insert copper and zinc electrodes in an acidic liquid and produce some electricity from the chemical reaction between your electrodes and electrolyte. 
The electricity produced in this way can be displayed with a multi-meter that can show millivolts. It may also be able to produce enough electricity to get light.  If you want to run or light up a device you must consider the voltage and current requirements of that device. Picture in the right shows 3 potato batteries connected in series so together they will produce enough voltage to light up a super bright LED type light source.
Making electricity experiment can be used for many different science projects. Following are some additional research that you can perform in relation to making electricity from fruits and chemicals.
1. Experiment to see which fruits can produce electricity.4. Replace electrodes of your kit with other metals such as coins, nails to see which other metals can be used as electrodes.
2. Experiment to see which fruit juices can produce electricity5. Test to see if such electrodes can light up a bulb.
3. Experiment to see which other liquids such as detergents and drinks can produce electricity. 6. If you have access to a multi meter, check to see how many volts electricity is being produced by fruits.

Material and equipment:
Material and equipment that you need for this project are: 
  1. Copper Electrode
  2. Zinc Electrode
  3. Multi-meter capable of measuring low voltages
  4. Flashlight light bulb 1.2 Volts
  5. Screw Base or socket for  light bulb
  6. Wires 
  7. Alligator clips
  8. Board for mounting the base and the bulb (optional)
You can purchase the material locally from a hardware store or buy it online. Make electricity science kit of MiniScience.com contains all the above material 
 
When your science project is making electricity, the biggest challenge is to see the product of small amount of electricity that you produce. Make electricity kit can make it easy for you to complete your project. 

Recycled wood bark of malunggay as Handmade Paper

Title :  Recycled  wood bark of malunggay as Handmade Paper

Problem

What will be the texture, cost value, and acceptance in the market of paper if recycled wood bark of malunggay is used in making it?


Hypothesis

We think that if recycled wood bark of malunggay  is used in making paper, then its texture will be rough, it is cheap, and it will be acceptable in the market.
Materials


Raw Materials:
500 grams of dried malunggay bark 50 grams chlorine100 grams caustic soda

Other Materials:
2 grams Venus Dye Mold and Deckle Silk Screen Cloth or Net Bag Weighing Scale, Mortar and Scale

Procedures


I. Preparation of materials

The barks of Malunggay  stems are removed. The outer skin was scraped off and bark was stripped off from the inner wood. Then the barks were sun-dried. The materials were first prepared before the experiment.

II. Boiling of Malunggay Barks

The dried barks were boiled in caustic soda and water for 2-3 hours. Then the barks were washed to remove chemicals. They were then pounded to produce wood pulp.


I.a. The dried barks were boiled in caustic soda for 2 – 3 hours.
I.b. The barks were washed to remove chemicals.
II.c. Then pounded to produce wood pulp.


III. Bleaching and Dyeing of the Wood Pulp

The pulp produced in the process was bleached using chlorine. After bleaching, it was washed to remove chemicals. The wood pulp was soaked in water for 5-15 minutes to make it whiter. Then the wood pulp was boiled in dye and water for about 15 minutes.
Dyeing of the Wood Pulp

II.d. Produced Wood Pulp


IV. Moulding and Drying of Wood Pulp

The dyed wood pulp can now be molded. Using the mold and deckle, the wood pulp mixed with water was molded. To dry the pulp, place it on an even wall or screen to let it dry. When the pulp has already dried, strip off the paper from the wall.



Final Output 
The paper produced

Data Gathered 

After we had produced the paper out of the Malunggay Bark, we asked somebody to rate the tear strength, texture and acceptance of the paper.





      Tear Strength

rating
Description
5
Extremely tough
4
Very Tough
3
Tough
2
Moderate Tough
1
Durable Soft

                                                                                Rating : 2



                                                                                                Texture
rating
Description
5
Extremely tough
4
Very Tough
3
Tough
2
Moderate Tough
1
Durable Soft
                                                                                                Rating 3
 Acceptance
rating
Description
5
Extremely tough
4
Very Tough
3
Tough
2
Moderate Tough
1
Durable Soft

                                                                                                Rating: 3


Conclusion

            Our hypothesis was right. The texture of the paper out of Malunggay Bark is rough. It is acceptable in the market, and it will be cheap if sold, because the materials are not expensive.


 


Production of Carbon Paper Using Carbon Black as Pigment






Investigatory Project




Title:

“PRODUCTION OF CARBON PAPER USING CARBON BLACK  as  PIGMENT”


























TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                            
Abstract                                                                                                                                                

Chapter I
Introduction
A. Background of the Study                                                                                                            
B. Statement of the Problem                                                                                                          
C. Hypothesis                                                                                                                                     
D. Objectives of the Study                                                                                                               
E. Significance of the Study                                                                                                                                            
F. Scope and Limitations of the Study                                                                          
G. Conceptual Framework                                                                                                             
H. Theoretical Framework                                                                                                              

Chapter II
Review of Related Studies                                                                                                                                                                                                          

Chapter II
IMethodology
A. Materials                                                                                                                                         
B. Method                                                                                                                                            

Chapter IV
Results and Discussion                                                                                                               

Chapter V
Conclusions and Recommendations                                                                                     

Appendices
A. Time Table                                                                                                                                     
B. Budget                                                                                                                                             
C. Bibliography                                                                                                                                   

















ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


The group would like to thank God for giving us the knowledge andguidance to open up our minds and come up with a successful project. Wewould also like to thank our parents who gave their support in accomplishing thisproject. They helped us in completing all the materials we needed for thisproject. And lastly, our teacher in Science, Ms. Certeza is acknowledged for giving us the opportunity to explore and learn more about the significance of Science.







ABSTRACT


The study was about finding out which is the best material to use as asubstitute in making pigment for producing carbon paper. Carbon black fromused batteries was used together with acetone as the vehicle and oil as thebinder. The pigment that was produced from these materials was tested on bondpaper. The carbon paper was evaluated for its drying time, firmness and clarity of print. The evaluation showed good results.After conducting the study, the group was able to find out what is the mostsuitable material to use in producing the ink. We came up with a good carbonpaper that could be a substitute to the commercial carbon paper.
















                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Our country is facing great problems with regards to the condition of our environment. Trashes everywhere, people dumping garbage on riverbanks, pollution from factories, smoke belching cars… These are the things we see around us nowadays. As students, we know that by our simple ways we can help improve the environment, and that is by RECYCLING. The group decided to choose this project because we know that by recycling and reusing simple materials, we can minimize our paper wastes and come up with a good product.


A. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Carbon paper has many uses. It has a high demand in schools, offices and other 
institutions. The ink used in the usual production of carbon paper is expensive due to high production cost. Carbon paper-producing companies spend a lot not knowing that there is a more practical alternative to this; yet can help save our environment. In the project, carbon from used batteries was usedto serve as the pigment to produce carbon paper.

B. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
v  Is carbon from used batteries effective as an alternative in making inkfor carbon paper?

v  What made the carbon black from used batteries a better source of pigment than the other substitutes like charcoal?

C. HYPOTHESIS
v  Using the correct proportion among the vehicle and binder with thecarbon from used batteries will make it an effective alternative inmaking ink for carbon paper.

v  Carbon from used batteries would be the best substitute to use for thepigment due to its fine particles.


D. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study aims to prove that carbon from used batteries will be an effective and practical substitute in making pigment for producing carbon paper.


E. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This is study will enable us to know if carbon from used batteries will be an effective alternative in making ink for producing carbon paper. It will also help carbon paper-producers solve the high production cost of the product.


F. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study concentrates in the evaluation of the drying time, firmness and clarity of print of the carbon paper which made use of the black mix from batteries.















G. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK



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H. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The basic ingredients used were acetone, coconut oil and carbon black. The acetone is the vehicle. The coconut oil is the binder. And the carbon black is the colouring   pigment. The vehicle or the “surfactant” (acetone) is a wetting agent that lowers the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading and lowers the interfacial tension between two liquids. The coconut oil is the binder for it is miscible. Miscibility, in principle inchemistry, is the property of liquids to mix in all proportions, forming ahomogeneous solution. It applies in other phases such as solid and  gas. The carbon black is the principal ingredient that serves as the colouring pigment. The carbon particles do not fade over time even when in sunlight or bleached. One benefit of carbon ink is that it is not harmful to the paper. Over time, the ink is chemically stable and therefore does not threaten the strength of the paper. Despite these benefits, carbon ink is not the ideal ink for permanence and ease of preservation.





CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES



Carbon Paper 


Carbon paper (originally carbonic paper) is paper coated on one side with a layer of a loosely bound dry ink or pigmented coating, usually bound with wax. It is used for making one or more copies simultaneous with the creation of anoriginal document. Manufacture of carbon paper was formerly the largestconsumer of Montan wax (also known as Lignite wax or OP wax, is a hard wax obtained by solvent extraction of certain types of lignite or brown coal).


Carbon paper is placed between the original and a blank sheet to be copied onto. As the user writes or types on the original, the pressure from the pen or typeface deposits the ink on the blank sheet, thus creating a "carbon-copy" of the original  document.


As the ink is transferred from the carbon paper to the underlying paper,  an impression of the corresponding text is left on the "carbon" where the ink was removed. Carbon paper used to create sensitive documents can be subjected to forensic analysis and is thus a concern for information security, so it must be shredded or otherwise destroyed to maintain security.






In the usual production of carbon papers, the key ingredient is carbon black. To make it, air and a hydrocarbon (such as petroleum oil) are fed into a furnace. In the furnace, part of the petroleum oil undergoes combustion, helpingto raise the temperature up to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit and causing theunburned hydrocarbon to decompose to carbon black. The carbon black is then cooled with water and recovered by putting in a centrifugal cyclone or bag filter.

As time went by, the use of carbon paper was eventually superseded by electronic means, mostly by photocopying and using carbonless copy paper. But not without leaving its mark, carbon paper is still commercially available today. However, its use has declined significantly in the last 20 years, despite the proliferation of copying in the modern office over the same period. Perhaps it will continue to be used until the "paperless office" becomes a reality, or perhaps it will always be ideal for some applications. Regardless of its ultimate fate, carbon paper has already left its mark on one of the most recent technologies to enter the workplace: many electronic mail computer programs (Email) include theabbreviation "cc" to indicate the recipients of a "carbon copy" of the electronic message.



Carbon


Carbon has many industrial uses for its three forms; amorphous, diamond, and graphite. The amorphous form (coal) is used in power plants, and is used in the iron industry to make steel. The diamond form is used as jewelry, and is used as part of cutting tools. The graphite form is a great conductor and is used for pencils and sports equipment. A new form of carbon, buckminsterfullerene (C60)has been made. It forms with treatments of graphite by lasers and is now commercially  Available in small quantities.

 Carbon is usually used as pigment because of its low oil absorption and low abrasion to plate ware. Carbon is chemically infusible at atmospheric pressure, which makes it an essential part in the black pigment used in books, magazines, newspaper, carbon paper, etc. One good source of pigment that is carbonaceous in nature is the black mix found in batteries. This is much cheaper than the usual black pigments such as carbon black in graphite and lamp black

Batteries have black particles called “black mix”, which is primarily composed of carbon black, acetylene and manganese dioxide (Mn²0).
The battery’s carbonaceous content makes it a good source of black pigment

.Although carbon is relatively safe due to low toxicity and resistance to most chemical attacks (including fire and the acidic contents of the digestive tract) at normal temperatures, inhalation of fine soot in large quantities can be dangerous. Diamond dust can do harm as an abrasive if ingested or inhaled. Carbon may also spawn flames at very high temperatures and burn vigorously and brightly.







CHAPTER III


METHODOLOGY


A.MATERIALS

v  Used batteries
v  Bond paper 
v  Mortar and pestle
v  Coconut oil
v  Acetone
v  Dropper 
v  Fine screen
v  Sharp knife
v  Clean container 


B.METHOD
v  By using a sharp knife, open the protective housing of a dry cell batteryand expose its carbon content, then collect them.

v  Pulverize the collected carbon black by using mortar and pestle, andthen sieve the carbon black with the use of fine screen.

v  Get at least half a teaspoon of the pulverized carbon black, put it in aclean container, and then add 12 ml acetone and 2 ml coconut oil.4.Mix the substance until totally dispersed.5.Apply the mixture evenly on a bond paper and wait till it dries up.



CHAPTER IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The carbon paper was tested and observed for its drying time, firmness and clarity of print. The carbon paper showed good results for:

v  It dried up fast.

v  The carbon black mixture can be easily applied on bond paper because of the fine particles of carbon black.
        
v  The print on paper is clear. The acetone helped in the absorption of the mixture into the paper. While the coconut oil helped to ease the spreading of the mixture to the paper.







CHAPTER V



CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


We therefore conclude that the experimental carbon paper is acceptable as a substitute for commercial carbon paper. We found out that the fine particles of the carbon black from used batteries made it a best source of pigment for producing carbon paper.Despite these, further studies and improvement of the product are stillrecommended for a good carbon paper with better quality.